Continuous Spectrum Definition
Those who have seen a rainbow have probably seen a continuous spectrum as it is agreed that the sun’s light contain this kind of spectrum although you will learn that this is not so all the time. When white light is passed through a prism, it produces a rainbow of colors because of the different wavelengths that refract (bend) at different angles when they go through the prism.
If the rainbow that is produced has all the colors from red to violet, and has no gaps between them, then it is referred to as a continuous spectrum. A beam of pure white light attainable is some laboratories often contain this spectrum. It is also possible to obtain continuous spectra when you heat up different materials until they glow.
The correct continuous spectrum definition therefore exhibits when, within a given limit, all the wavelengths are present.
Learn More About Continuous Spectrum
When Newton did his famous experiment with a prism and sunlight, he noted that the Sun produced a “rainbow” of colours. This is a continuous spectrum. However if he had been able to produce a more detailed spectrum he would have noticed some subtleties on this continuous spectrum. So, light from the Sun, and any star, produces a continuous spectrum.
We also get a continuum spectrum from a hot solid, so for example the light produced by incandescent light bulbs is a continuum spectrum. These kinds of bulbs give off light by a very thin coil of metal, the filament, (usually tungsten) getting extremely hot from having an electric current passed through it. When the filament gets to thousands of degrees, it gives off light (source).
Rainbow is generally accepted as an example as it details all the colors (wavelengths) from red to violet without any gaps. However, the sun’s light is not a perfect example of continuous spectrum as it contains absorption gaps therein. A more ideal continuous spectrum example can be shown when you pass white light through a prism in well set lab environments. Other physicists have also shown that heating up objects to the point which they glow can produce the spectrum. This is because atoms emit white light at glowing point and have thus given away all the energy absorbed.
In order to generate complete continuous spectra, we need to put together absorption and emission spectra. An emission spectrum is the exact opposite of an absorption spectrum. When an absorption spectrum shows a few wavelengths with some particular colors missing. An emission spectrum only shows the colors missing in an absorption spectrum. Thus, combining the two would give you all the wavelengths that form a continuous spectrum.